Inline Sputter System for ITO and Ag Deposition on Heterojunction Solar Cells
SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES develops equipment and technologies for economical and resource-efficient production processes. The core competencies are vacuum thin- lm technologies, wet-chemical processes, surface -and thermal processing technologies. SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES taps new work areas with these competencies and develops innovative solutions.
For all processes and applications, SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES uses its know-how in automation and process technologies as well as the integration of production steps and works on transferring these solutions to additional areas of application.
One main focus during the solar cell production is the ef ciency. Heterojunction cell technology (HJT) achieves conversion ef ciencies of more than 22 % as well as reduced manufacturing costs. The newly developed GENERIS PVD system is a horizontal inline sputter tool designed for the special requirements in photovoltaic high efficiency cell production.
Heterojunction cells are coated on both sides with transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers by PVD (physical vapor deposition). The GENERIS PVD is ideally suited for challenging layer stacks i.e. TCO layers like ITO and AZO providing maximum optical transmittance, matched refractive index, optimum electrical conductivity as well as charge carrier mobility, which are key-parameters in heterojunction cell technology. Sputter damage to the amorphous silicon layer stack does not occur. A full substrate temperature control during the whole process enables optimum layer performance at temperatures ≤200°C.
With the GENERIS PVD sputtering system, contact layers can be deposited on the front and rear of the Si wafers without the need to turn the wafers between coating processes and without vacuum interruption. Annealing of sputtered layers is integrated optionally. Also full area metal coatings, e.g. Ag can be deposited within the same system. By using rotatable sputtering magnetrons, highest target utilization is achieved and offers lowest production costs.
Other typical applications include anti-re ection layers, barrier layers and precursor layers but also different metallic layers such as Al, Cu, NiV, etc. The GENERIS PVD is using an inline process in which the substrates are transported on specially designed carriers, providing edge isolation simultaneously. The carrier return system is located below the machine under clean environmental conditions. Different automation options for loading and unloading are available.
Typical Performance Characteristics GENERIS PVD
- For transparent conductive oxide layers like ITO and AZO, e.g. for HJT
- Parallel processing of several substrates (Si wafers)
- Available in 3 versions:
- GENERIS LAB
- GENERIS PVD 3000 for approx. 2600wph
- GENERIS PVD 5000 for approx. 5200wph
- Modular configuration
- Low cost of ownership and high uptime
- Top down and bottom up sputtering configurable
- Sputter sequence configurable
- Full temperature control throughout the whole process
- Rotatable cylindrical magnetrons for highest utilization of target material
- Sputtering materials: ITO, AZO and metals like Ag, NiV, Cu, Al etc.
- Single end and double end version selectable
- Manual or semi-automated lab versions on request