GENERIS PVD

Inline Sputtering System for Heterojunction Solar Cells

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The SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES GENERIS PVD has been especially designed for very thin substrates such as silicon wafers for the manufacturing of HJT solar cells. To generate and supply electric energy, thin-films of different electronic properties are deposited on the n-doped crystalline silicon wafer. The heterojunction and passivating structures are formed by dual-sided thin layers of intrinsic and doped amorphous silicon. On top of these silicon structures, thin and transparent conductive oxide films (TCO) are applied by a sputtering process as contact layers to conduct the generated electricity out of the cell.

Numerous SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES vacuum sputtering machines are in operation in the solar industry, where SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES provides the GENERIS PVD as a high throughput inline sputtering system platform with horizontal substrate transport. The GENERIS PVD is engineered for the specific requirements of the production of high-performance HJT solar cells. The GENERIS PVD ideally meets the key requirements of the heterojunction cell technology with respect to sophisticated transparent conductive oxide layers (TCO) such as ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) and AZO (Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide). The solar cells are automatically transported through the process chambers of the GENERIS PVD, following the inline principle and applying coatings on both sides. The sputtering system safeguards a high level of layer thickness uniformity with high layer reproducibility, high productivity and at the same time very low operating expenses (OPEX).

A full substrate temperature control during the whole process section enables optimum layer performance at temperatures . 200 ‹C. Compared to conventional alternative processes like Reactive Plasma Deposition (RPD), a vacuum inline sputtering system offers a number of clear advantages. Based on the calculation for a 1 GW production fab for HJT solar cells, the CAPEX for using a reduced number of high-throughput sputtering systems from SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES with a max. capacity of 10,000 wafers per hour (wph) is by far lower compared to RPD systems with a capacity of only 2,500 wph. With the latest system generation GENERIS PVD 10000, SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES can assure capacities up to 10,000 wph leading to an annual equipment output of about 500 MW. There are further savings due to the smaller footprint of the equipment and related smaller building and cleanroom space requirements. In addition, RPD systems offer only bottom up, single-sided processes requiring a wafer flip which causes additional, unnecessary wafer handling. In comparison, the dual-sided processes of the GENERIS PVD require less wafer handling resulting in reduced wafer breakage, wafer damage and wafer marks. SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES offers the GENERIS PVD with different throughput ranges of 3,000, 6,000 and up to 10,000 wafer per hour.

Typical Performance Characteristics GENERIS PVD

     

  • Sputtering material: ITO, AZO and metallic layers like Mo, Al, Cu, Ag, NiV etc.
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  • Typical applications include anti-reflection layers, barrier layers, precursors and metallic layers
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  • Parallel processing of several substrates
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  • Available in 4 versions:
    • GENERIS LAB
    • GENERIS PVD 3000 for approx. 3,000 wph
    • GENERIS PVD 6000 for approx. 6,000 wph
    • GENERIS PVD 10000 for approx. 10,000 wph
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  • Carrier loading area: 1,400 mm x 1,600 / 2,000 mm
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  • Typical tact time: 40 - 75 s per carrier
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  • Parallel processing of substrates (e.g. display, glass, Si wafers) via carrier tray
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  • High-speed automatization for carrier tray loading and unloading (single or double side)
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  • Top down and bottom-up sputtering configurable – dual side sputtering without vacuum breakage
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  • Low cost of ownership and high uptime
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  • Sputter sequence configurable
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  • Rotatable cylindrical magnetrons
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  • Highest utilization of target material
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  • Carrier return system (CRS) underneath of machine
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  • Vacuum base pressure: ‹ 1 x 10-6 mbar, typical process pressure: 2 - 5 x10-3 mbar
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